There is a different kind of chemistry being used by scientists

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Their new process, mechanochemical extraction of lithium at low temperatures, or MELLT, is a creative solution to increase and diversify the supply of lithium in the United States.
Lithium brines are deposits of salty groundwater that have accumulated dissolved lithium.
Both methods present challenges in a high-demand market for Lithium; brines take too long to produce (12-24 months), and hard-rock mineral extraction uses too much energy.
“Usually it is used to crush the initial material or mix the reactants, but in rare instances it has been used to facilitate chemical reactions.” All chemical reactions need energy.
“These imperfections become reactive spots where chemical reactions can happen more quickly and easily.” Using these principles, Hlova’s team developed MELLT.
“Mechanochemistry offers a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach to conducting chemical reactions,” said Hlova.
In 11 years as the U.S. Department of Energy’s Critical Materials Energy Innovation Hub, 21 CMI technologies have been licensed.
Ames Laboratory creates innovative materials, technologies, and energy solutions.


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A lab filled with colorful liquids in beakers, flasks, and test tubes is usually what people picture when they think of chemistry. However, in real life, chemistry can deal with substances that are liquid, gaseous, or even solid.

Lead by the U.S., scientists at the Critical Materials Innovation (CMI) Hub. s. Mechanical forces that agitate, tumble, and smash solids to initiate chemical reactions are the means by which the Department of Energy’s Ames National Laboratory employs mechanochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, to literally shake up the conventional understanding of chemical reactions. Their novel method, known as mechanochemical extraction of lithium at low temperatures, or MELLT, is an inventive way to expand and change the US lithium supply.

Due to its high demand, lithium carries a risk in the supply chain. High-performance rechargeable batteries, which are used in a variety of technologies including electric cars, medical equipment, and cell phones, require it. The need for lithium is growing as electric cars gain popularity. Brine and hard-rock minerals are the two sources of the lithium element (Li) required to produce these batteries. Salty groundwater accumulations of dissolved lithium are known as lithium brines. Spodumene is the primary hard-rock mineral containing lithium. The extraction techniques needed for both sources differ.

The project group leader, Ihor Hlova, a scientist at CMI and Ames Lab, described how solar evaporation provides a low-cost method of extracting lithium from brines. In essence, brine-filled shallow wells are left out in the open all the time to allow the water to evaporate. It serves as the main domestic and import source of lithium in the US.

The hard-rock mineral spodumene is currently extracted from lithium using an energy-intensive process that generates hazardous waste streams and greenhouse gases. Mineral ore undergoes two heating processes in this process. To make it more suited for chemical processing, it is first roasted at 1050°C (1976°F). To create a water-soluble lithium compound, the mineral ore is cooked with chemicals at a temperature of approximately 250°C (485°F) in the second step. When lithium is extracted from brines, the quality of the resulting lithium product is lower.

The production of brines takes too long (12–24 months), and the energy required for hard-rock mineral extraction is too high, making both approaches problematic in the high-demand lithium market. Furthermore, brines create hazardous byproducts during the various processing stages, and direct mineral extraction uses a lot of fresh water.

Mechanochemistry was employed by Hlova’s group to get around these drawbacks and produce a more effective procedure.

According to Tyler Del Rose, a postdoctoral researcher at Ames Lab and member of the research team, “mechanochemistry is an underutilized technique in extraction methodologies.”. Slightly less frequently, it has been employed to speed up chemical reactions. Typically, it is employed to mix reactants or crush the starting material. “.

Energy is required for every chemical reaction. Heat, light, and electricity are just a few of the various forms that energy can take. In mechanochemistry, however, mechanical forces are the source of it. According to Hlova, “mechanical force produces structural imperfections on the surface of solid materials.”. These flaws turn into reactive areas where chemical reactions can occur more swiftly and effortlessly. “.

These ideas were used by Hlova’s group to create MELLT. Solid spodumene chunks and a solid reactant chemical, such as sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), are put into a chamber with steel balls in a procedure known as ball milling. The chamber is shifted in various directions, which repeatedly and quickly shears and impacts the materials. When stress is applied repeatedly, the chemicals eventually reach high-energy states and start to react with one another. Water-soluble lithium compounds are the end product of these reactions. With a water wash, these lithium compounds are removed from the finished product.

MELLT reduces energy consumption, improves efficiency, and gets rid of hazardous waste streams in the extraction of hard-rock minerals. Additionally, MELLT is a lot quicker than brine extraction techniques.

“A more environmentally friendly and sustainable method of conducting chemical reactions is provided by mechanochemistry,” Hlova stated. “This initiative presents the opportunity to diversify lithium supply chains within the United States. s. diminishing the criticality of lithium and clearing the path for a sustainable future. “.

MELLT’s creation is a component of a broader CMI-supported cooperative effort involving numerous national laboratories, academic institutions, and business partners to find novel approaches to refining or enhance current techniques for removing lithium from brine and hard rock sources.

The director of CMI, Tom Lograsso, stated, “CMI exists to develop innovative solutions to critical supply chain issues like this one.”. As part of that goal, this work offers U. S. sectors featuring technologies that can be made commercially available. “.

The U.S. is the leader of the Critical Materials Innovation Hub, an Energy Innovation Hub. S. The Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Technologies Office (AMMTO) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy is assisting the Department of Energy’s Ames National Laboratory. CMI looks for ways to improve the U.S. innovation pipeline and hasten the development of critical material technologies. s. supply chains by collaborating with American industry to develop de-risked, market-ready technologies, educate a diverse workforce, and speed up research.

eleven years during which the U. S. 21 technologies from the Critical Materials Energy Innovation Hub of the Department of Energy have been granted licenses. In addition to 51 patents, CMI has 646 publications. Software packages that are open-source have been developed by CMI. Reach out to CMI Partner Relations’ Stacy Joiner at or 515-296-4508 if you’d like to collaborate with them or license their technologies.

Ames National Laboratory is an American institution. s. Iowa State University manages the Department of Energy’s Office of Science National Laboratory. New technologies, materials, and energy solutions are developed at Ames Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary teams, specialized knowledge, and distinctive abilities are employed to address worldwide issues.

The U.S. Office of Science provides funding to Ames National Laboratory. s. Energy Department. Dedicated to tackling some of the most urgent problems of our day, the Office of Science is the largest single sponsor of fundamental research in the physical sciences in the United States. Kindly visit https://energy . gov/science for additional information.

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